Dr. Michael Cashel is the Head of the Section on Molecular Regulation. After receiving his M.D. degree from Case Western Reserve University in 1963, he joined in the US Public Health Service at NIH for a two year postdoctoral with Dr. Ernst Freese working on DNA crosslinking and sporulation. He then went on a USPHS out-of-service training award to the Department of Genetics at the University of Washington to work with Dr. Jonathan Gallant, where he explored RNA synthesis in permeabilized cells, co-discovered (p)ppGpp as a spot on thin layer chromatograms and received his Ph.D. He returned to NIH in 1967 to determine the regulatory features and structures of the spot as (p)ppGpp. He has worked at NIH ever since pursuing genetic and biochemical approaches to (p)ppGpp regulation and its roles in regulating growth and cellular physiology of stress.