Insulin stimulates glucose uptake into adipocytes (Left) by recruiting GLUT4 to the Plasma Membrane from intracellular storage sites. This GLUT4 redistribution is achieved through physical trafficking of GLUT4 storage compartments (Right) to the PM, and many steps of GLUT4 translocation process are regulated by insulin. We are particularly interested in the final step of this translocation process, the fusion of GLUT4 vesicles at the cell membrane. To this end, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was employed to investigate how GLUT4 trafficking is regulated at single vesicle level.
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